Outdoors
OUTDOORS Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska Fairba Scientist and explorer Kenji Yoshikawa found permafrost on Mount Kilimanjaro, a volcano in Tanzania. During a September climb of Africa's highest peak (19,331 feet), the University of Alaska Fairbanks researcher found permafrost not beneath the summit glaciers, but down the mountain a bit, at about 15,400 feet. There, outside the rocky border made by the terminal moraine of an ancient glacier, he found ground beneath the surface that has been frozen for many years. Permafrost is soil or any other ground material that has remained frozen through the heat of at least two summers.

Permafrost near equator; hummingbirds near subarctic

Kenji Yoshikawa, Kenji Narita, and guide Romli Otto who helped with a climb up Mount Kilimanjaro drill a permafrost monitoring hole near the volcano's summit. In the background is Furtwängler Glacier, a remnant of a large icecap that used to cover Kilimanjaro's summit.
Photo By Mike O'toole
Kenji Yoshikawa, Kenji Narita, and guide Romli Otto who helped with a climb up Mount Kilimanjaro drill a permafrost monitoring hole near the volcano's summit. In the background is Furtwängler Glacier, a remnant of a large icecap that used to cover Kilimanjaro's summit.
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